工作记录–WPF自定义控件,实现一个可设置编辑模式的TextBox

1. 背景

  因为最近在使用wpf开发桌面端应用,在查看页面需要把TextBox和Combox等控件设置为只读的。原本是个很简单的事,设置属性IsReadOnly=”True”或IsEnabled=”False”就可以解决了,可是产品觉得样式不是他想要的(背景是灰色的),想要实现的效果是和编辑时的样式一致,仅仅是不可编辑而已。我想这也简单啊,强制修改背景色和字体就完事了,结果发现TextBox修改背景色是可行的,但是修改后字体是灰色的,改也改不了,Combox更是连背景色都改不了。。。wtf

  于是开始了一段Google之路,发现别人说的都好复杂,大概明白了修改自带的不可编辑或只读的样式不是一件简单的事。于是我准备用一种变通的方法来解决这个问题,写个自定义控件,通过设置自定义控件的属性来显示/隐藏内部控件的方式。

2. 实现

  首先新建一个用户控件(UserControl),命名为LabelRenderTextBox,在LabelRenderTextBox.xaml文件编写以下内容 

   <!--DataContext="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource self}} datacontext绑定自身会破坏binding链,而通过第一个child来binding则不会破坏"-->
  <StackPanel x:Name="panel" DataContext="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=FindAncestor, AncestorType=local:LabelRenderTextBox}}">
        <Border BorderThickness="1" BorderBrush="#ccc" x:Name="label" Width="{Binding ElementName=panel, Path=ActualWidth}" Height="24" Visibility="Collapsed" Padding="5,3,0,0">
            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Text}" ></TextBlock>
        </Border>
        <TextBox x:Name="textbox" Text="{Binding Text, Mode=TwoWay, UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged}" Width="{Binding ElementName=panel, Path=ActualWidth}" Height="24"
                 base:CustomizeProperty.Placeholder="{Binding Placeholder}" TextChanged="Textbox_TextChanged" ></TextBox>
    </StackPanel>

  如图,panel是UserControl内部最外层的元素,把这里的DataContext设为自身,就可以把内部控件的属性和cs文件中的属性进行绑定。label是默认隐藏的元素,textbox是默认显示的控件。label和textbox的Text属性都是绑定的LabelRenderTextBox的Text属性,宽度都是和最外层的panel的宽度进行绑定的,以便于使用者自己设置宽度。

  那么当我们使用LabelRenderTextBox控件进行编辑的时候,实际上还是通过TextBox来实现了,因为设置了Mode=TwoWay进行了双向绑定,UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged,所以当TextBox的Text改变时,LabelRenderTextBox的Text值也会跟着改变,所以我们可以在LabelRenderTextBox.cs文件里添加一个属性 public string Text { get; set; } ,可是当我们在外部直接修改LabelRenderTextBox的Text值如何使内部的TextBox值也跟着改变呢?这时候就需要用到wpf的依赖属性了,首先通过查看UserControl的继承关系可以发现UserControl是继承自DependencyObject的,意味着它是一个依赖对象,可以设置依赖属性。所以我们可以在LabelRenderTextBox.cs文件里添加以下代码:

       public string Text { get
            {
                return (string)this.GetValue(TextProperty);
            }
            set
            {
                this.SetValue(TextProperty, value);
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty TextProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("Text", typeof(string), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata("", OnTextChanged));

        private static void OnTextChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.Text = e.NewValue as string;
            }
        }

  通过DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached方法注册一个Text属性,string类型的,类型为LabelRenderTextBox,PropertyMetadata的第一个参数是默认值,第二个参数是一个回调函数(当属性改变时进行回调),回调时通过Text的set方法来调用SetValue属性来设置依赖属性的值并通知与其绑定的属性(想知道如何实现的可以参考:WPF依赖对象(DependencyObject) 实现源码,理解WPF原理必读)。

  接下来,定义一个枚举类来列举出需要的编辑模式,我这里列举出4种模式,可根据自己的需求进行调整。

    public enum EditModes
    {
        //编辑模式
        Editable = 0,
        //只读模式
        ReadOnly = 1,      
        //只读模式展示,单击进入编辑模式,失去焦点后恢复只读模式
        Click = 2,
        //只读模式展示,双击进入编辑模式,失去焦点后恢复只读模式
        DoubleCLick = 3
    }

  定义了枚举之后就要使用了,和设置Text属性的方式来注册一个EditMode依赖属性,SetEditable方法传入true/false来设置textbox(编辑)和label(只读)的显示和隐藏。这样只要通过设置EditMode属性就可以完美实现产品的需求了,我真棒!

       #region EditModeProperty 
        public EditModes EditMode {
            get { return (EditModes)this.GetValue(EditModeProperty); }
            set {
                this.SetValue(EditModeProperty, value);
                if (value == EditModes.Editable)
                {
                    SetEditable(true);
                }
                else
                {
                    SetEditable(false);
                }
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty EditModeProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("EditMode", typeof(EditModes), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata(EditModes.Editable, OnEditModeChanged));

        private static void OnEditModeChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.EditMode = (EditModes)e.NewValue;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        private void SetEditable(bool editable)
        {
            if (editable)
            {
                this.label.Visibility = Visibility.Collapsed;
                this.textbox.Visibility = Visibility.Visible;
            }
            else
            {
                this.label.Visibility = Visibility.Visible;
                this.textbox.Visibility = Visibility.Collapsed;
            }
        }

  可是按照产品的需求只要Editable和ReadOnly两个属性就够了,其他两个是用来扩展的,可以在合适的场景下带来更好的用户体验,默认展示只读模式,单击或者双击变为编辑模式,失去焦点后恢复只读模式。实现方法也很简单,直接在UserControl定义几个事件,在对应的事件函数进行如下处理。

       private void Click(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            if (EditMode == EditModes.Click)
                SetEditable(true);
        }

        private void DoubleClick(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            if (EditMode == EditModes.DoubleCLick)
                SetEditable(true);
        }

        private void Lost_Focus(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            if(EditMode == EditModes.DoubleCLick || EditMode == EditModes.Click)
                SetEditable(false);
        }

  你可能会想,如果想监听TextBox的事件该怎么做呢,也很简单,在cs文件里定义相同的事件,然后在cs文件里监听对应事件,触发时调用定义的事件即可。

        public event TextChangedEventHandler TextChanged;
       
        private void Textbox_TextChanged(object sender, TextChangedEventArgs e)
        {           
            this.TextChanged?.Invoke(this, e);
        }

  是不是很简单呢?希望可以帮到遇到相同问题的朋友,完整代码如下:


<UserControl x:Class="YZ.HIS.UserControls.LabelRenders.LabelRenderTextBox"
             xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
             xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
             xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006" 
             xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008" 
             xmlns:base="clr-namespace:APP_YFT.Base;assembly=APP-YFT.Base"
             xmlns:local="clr-namespace:YZ.HIS.UserControls.LabelRenders"
             mc:Ignorable="d" BorderThickness="0" 
             Height="24" d:DesignWidth="80" PreviewMouseLeftButtonDown="Click" PreviewMouseDoubleClick="DoubleClick"
             LostFocus="Lost_Focus">
    <UserControl.Resources>
        <Style x:Key="mySearchTextBoxStyle" TargetType="{x:Type TextBox}">
            <Setter Property="VerticalContentAlignment" Value="Center"/>
            <Setter Property="Padding" Value="6,0,0,0"/>
            <Setter Property="Template">
                <Setter.Value>
                    <ControlTemplate TargetType="{x:Type TextBox}">
                        <Border x:Name="bdRoot"  
                        BorderBrush="{TemplateBinding BorderBrush}"   
                        BorderThickness="{TemplateBinding BorderThickness}"   
                        SnapsToDevicePixels="{TemplateBinding SnapsToDevicePixels}"   
                        Background="{TemplateBinding Background}">
                            <DockPanel LastChildFill="True">
                                <Button x:Name="ClearButton"  
                                DockPanel.Dock="Right"   
                                Focusable="False"  Click="ExecCleanSearchText"
                                Width="{Binding ActualHeight, RelativeSource={RelativeSource Self}}"
                                FontSize="{TemplateBinding FontSize}">
                                    <Button.Template>
                                        <ControlTemplate>
                                            <Image x:Name="Image" Source="/YZ.HIS;component/Images/tbClean_icon.png" Stretch="None"/>
                                        </ControlTemplate>
                                    </Button.Template>
                                </Button>
                                <ScrollViewer x:Name="PART_ContentHost" DockPanel.Dock="Left" Background="{TemplateBinding Background}"/>
                            </DockPanel>
                        </Border>
                        <ControlTemplate.Triggers>
                            <DataTrigger Binding="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource Self}, Path=Text}" Value="">
                                <Setter TargetName="ClearButton" Property="Visibility" Value="Collapsed" />
                            </DataTrigger>
                            <Trigger Property="IsFocused" Value="True">
                                <Setter TargetName="bdRoot" Property="BorderBrush" Value="#569DE5"/>
                            </Trigger>
                            <Trigger Property="IsMouseOver" Value="True">
                                <Setter TargetName="bdRoot" Property="BorderBrush" Value="#7EB4EA"/>
                            </Trigger>
                        </ControlTemplate.Triggers>
                    </ControlTemplate>
                </Setter.Value>
            </Setter>
        </Style>
    </UserControl.Resources>
    <!--DataContext="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource self}} datacontext绑定自身会破坏binding链,而通过第一个child来binding则不会破坏"-->
    <StackPanel x:Name="panel" DataContext="{Binding RelativeSource={RelativeSource Mode=FindAncestor, AncestorType=local:LabelRenderTextBox}}">
        <Border BorderThickness="1" BorderBrush="#ccc" x:Name="label" Width="{Binding ElementName=panel, Path=ActualWidth}" Height="24" Visibility="Collapsed" Padding="5,3,0,0">
            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Text}" ></TextBlock>
        </Border>
        <TextBox x:Name="textbox" Text="{Binding Text, Mode=TwoWay, UpdateSourceTrigger=PropertyChanged}" Width="{Binding ElementName=panel, Path=ActualWidth}" Height="24"
                 base:CustomizeProperty.Placeholder="{Binding Placeholder}" TextChanged="Textbox_TextChanged" ></TextBox>
    </StackPanel>
</UserControl>

xaml

using APP_YFT.Base;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Data;
using System.Windows.Documents;
using System.Windows.Input;
using System.Windows.Media;
using System.Windows.Media.Imaging;
using System.Windows.Navigation;
using System.Windows.Shapes;

namespace YZ.HIS.UserControls.LabelRenders
{
    /// <summary>
    /// LabelRenderTextBox.xaml 的交互逻辑
    /// </summary>
    public partial class LabelRenderTextBox : UserControl
    {
        public LabelRenderTextBox()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
        }

        #region events
        public event TextChangedEventHandler TextChanged;
       
        private void Textbox_TextChanged(object sender, TextChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            if (RequiredValue == RequiredValues.Number)
            {
                TextBox textBox = sender as TextBox;
                string text = textBox.Text;
                Regex reg = new Regex(@"^[0-9]*$");
                if (text == null || (text.Count() == 0) || !reg.IsMatch(text))
                {
                    textBox.Text = "";
                    return;
                }
            }
            this.TextChanged?.Invoke(this, e);
        }

        //清空输入框事件
        private void ExecCleanSearchText(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            Button btn = sender as Button;
            if (btn == null)
                return;
            TextBox tb = btn.TemplatedParent as TextBox;
            if (tb != null)
            {
                tb.Text = "";
            }
        }

        private void Click(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            if (EditMode == EditModes.Click)
                SetEditable(true);
        }

        private void DoubleClick(object sender, MouseButtonEventArgs e)
        {
            if (EditMode == EditModes.DoubleCLick)
                SetEditable(true);
        }

        private void Lost_Focus(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            if(EditMode == EditModes.DoubleCLick || EditMode == EditModes.Click)
                SetEditable(false);
        }
        #endregion

        #region TextProperty 
        //public string Text { get; set; }
        public string Text { get
            {
                return (string)this.GetValue(TextProperty);
            }
            set
            {
                this.SetValue(TextProperty, value);
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty TextProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("Text", typeof(string), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata("", OnTextChanged));

        private static void OnTextChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.Text = e.NewValue as string;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region PlaceholderProperty 
        public string Placeholder { get
            {
                return (string)this.GetValue(PlaceholderProperty);
            }
            set
            {
                this.SetValue(PlaceholderProperty, value);
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty PlaceholderProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("Placeholder", typeof(string), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata("", OnPlaceholderChanged));

        private static void OnPlaceholderChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.Placeholder = e.NewValue as string;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region RequiredValueProperty 
        public RequiredValues RequiredValue
        {
            get { return (RequiredValues)this.GetValue(RequiredValueProperty); }
            set
            {
                this.SetValue(RequiredValueProperty, value);
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty RequiredValueProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("RequiredValue", typeof(RequiredValues), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata(RequiredValues.String, OnRequiredValueChanged));

        private static void OnRequiredValueChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.RequiredValue = (RequiredValues)e.NewValue;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region UseSearchProperty 
        public bool UseSearch
        {
            get { return (bool)this.GetValue(UseSearchProperty); }
            set
            {
                this.SetValue(UseSearchProperty, value);
                if (value)
                    this.textbox.Style = this.FindResource("mySearchTextBoxStyle") as Style;

            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty UseSearchProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("UseSearch", typeof(bool), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata(false, OnUseSearchChanged));

        private static void OnUseSearchChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.UseSearch = (bool)e.NewValue;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region CaretIndexProperty 
        public int CaretIndex {
            get { return (int)this.GetValue(CaretIndexProperty); }
            set
            {
                this.SetValue(CaretIndexProperty, value);
                this.textbox.CaretIndex = value;
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty CaretIndexProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("CaretIndex", typeof(int), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata(0, OnCaretIndexChanged));

        private static void OnCaretIndexChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.CaretIndex = (int)e.NewValue;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region SelectionStartProperty 
        public int SelectionStart
        {
            get { return (int)this.GetValue(SelectionStartProperty); }
            set
            {
                this.SetValue(SelectionStartProperty, value);
                this.textbox.SelectionStart = value;
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty SelectionStartProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("SelectionStart", typeof(int), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata(0, OnSelectionStartChanged));

        private static void OnSelectionStartChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.SelectionStart = (int)e.NewValue;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region EditModeProperty 
        public EditModes EditMode {
            get { return (EditModes)this.GetValue(EditModeProperty); }
            set {
                this.SetValue(EditModeProperty, value);
                if (value == EditModes.Editable)
                {
                    SetEditable(true);
                }
                else
                {
                    SetEditable(false);
                }
            }
        }

        public static readonly DependencyProperty EditModeProperty =
            DependencyProperty.RegisterAttached("EditMode", typeof(EditModes), typeof(LabelRenderTextBox), new PropertyMetadata(EditModes.Editable, OnEditModeChanged));

        private static void OnEditModeChanged(DependencyObject obj, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            var element = obj as LabelRenderTextBox;
            if (element != null)
            {
                element.EditMode = (EditModes)e.NewValue;
            }
        }
        #endregion

        private void SetEditable(bool editable)
        {
            if (editable)
            {
                this.label.Visibility = Visibility.Collapsed;
                this.textbox.Visibility = Visibility.Visible;
            }
            else
            {
                this.label.Visibility = Visibility.Visible;
                this.textbox.Visibility = Visibility.Collapsed;
            }
        }

       
    }

    public enum EditModes
    {
        //编辑模式
        Editable = 0,
        //只读模式
        ReadOnly = 1,      
        //只读模式展示,单击进入编辑模式,失去焦点后恢复只读模式
        Click = 2,
        //只读模式展示,双击进入编辑模式,失去焦点后恢复只读模式
        DoubleCLick = 3
    }

    public enum RequiredValues
    {
        String = 0,
        Number = 1
    }
}

C#

  

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